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FinalData 10 Torrent

Developer David Callé discussed the possibility of getting the torrents scope enabled by default in the next version of Ubuntu last month on Google+ and got a vote of support from Shuttleworth. "David, let's go ahead," Shuttleworth wrote. "The tool is super-useful and it's perfectly justified to make it available by default. We use Torrents for distributing ubuntu itself. So please don't hold back!"

FinalData 10 torrent


(UPDATE: After publication, Canonical told Ars that it supports adding torrent search to Ubuntu, but won't use Pirate Bay as a back end. "The notion of including search results for torrents is fair and reasonable, as this is a perfectly legal and legitimate technology," Canonical said. "The way scopes work is that we provide a set of online sources the scope searches (in much the same way the videos scope searches a set of digital video providers). We plan on featuring sources that provide legal torrents such as, and while everyone has their own idea of whether the Piratebay is a good or bad thing, we don't currently plan on featuring that as a source within the torrents scope.")

Callé, who is an online communications strategy manager for a small city in France, gave Ars an update on the status of the torrent search project this week. His project was also previously described in TorrentFreak.

"The Pirate Bay (used by the prototype) has the main benefit of providing ways to filter adult content, but the license filtering can only be done via search keywords, which is less than optimal," he wrote. "One idea I'm currently investigating is to rely on users to flag individual torrents based on their description."

Higher-level systematics in amphibians is relatively stable. However, recent phylogenetic studies of African torrent-frogs have uncovered high divergence in these phenotypically and ecologically similar frogs, in particular between West African torrent-frogs versus Central (Petropedetes) and East African (Arthroleptides and Ericabatrachus) lineages. Because of the considerable molecular divergence, and external morphology of the single West African torrent-frog species a new genus was erected (Odontobatrachus). In this study we aim to clarify the systematic position of West African torrent-frogs (Odontobatrachus). We determine the relationships of torrent-frogs using a multi-locus, nuclear and mitochondrial, dataset and include genera of all African and Asian ranoid families. Using micro-tomographic scanning we examine osteology and external morphological features of West African torrent-frogs to compare them with other ranoids.

Our analyses reveal Petropedetidae (Arthroleptides, Ericabatrachus, Petropedetes) as the sister taxon of the Pyxicephalidae. The phylogenetic position of Odontobatrachus is clearly outside Petropedetidae, and not closely related to any other ranoid family. According to our time-tree estimation Odontobatrachus has been separated from other frog lineages since the Cretaceous (90.1 Ma; confidence interval: 84.2-97.1 Ma). Along with this molecular evidence, osteological and external diagnostic characters recognize West African torrent-frogs as distinct from other ranoids and provide strong support for the necessity of the recognition of a new family of frogs. This is the only endemic vertebrate family occurring in the Upper Guinea biodiversity hotspot.

Based on molecular and morphological distinctiveness, the West African torrent-frog Odontobatrachus natator is allocated to a newly described anuran family. The discovery of an endemic vertebrate family in West Africa highlights the Upper Guinean forests as an outstanding, but highly endangered biodiversity hotspot.

In the course of a phylogenetic study of sub-Saharan torrent-frogs, previously considered to be integral part of a single genus (Petropedetes Reichenow, 1874), the West African species (P. natator) was shown to be highly divergent [14]. Barej et al. [14] recovered three distinct lineages, all having distinct geographic distributions. Based on molecular and morphological differences these authors consequently described the new genus Odontobatrachus, endemic to Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Ivory Coast. The genus description was based on a number of morphological synapomorphies and a deep molecular divergence of Odontobatrachus from Central African Petropedetes and East African Arthroleptides[14]. Surprisingly, Odontobatrachus was placed outside the family Petropedetidae, challenging the monophyly of this family. It also could not be assigned to any of the other groups sampled in this study [14]. We aim at resolving the higher-level phylogenetic relationships of the genus Odontobatrachus by including molecular samples of representatives of all African and Asian ranoids. Furthermore, using micro-tomographic scanning and staining techniques, we examine the osteological and external morphological features to compare Odontobatrachus with other ranoid families.

Recent large-scale phylogenies [1, 3, 7] did not include Odontobatrachus natator. In these analyses, African torrent-frogs were represented by Central and East African taxa, and based on the assumption that Odontobatrachus natator is a petropedetid, the species has been placed in the family Petropedetidae. Scott [23] included O. natator in her simultaneous analyses of molecular and morphological data. However, only morphological data of O. natator was available to Scott [23], and this dataset did not place the West African taxon outside the genus Petropedetes. In contrast, our molecular results clearly deviate from this conclusion with West African torrent-frogs Odontobatrachus natator placed outside the family Petropedetidae. The distinctiveness of Odontobatrachus natator is also supported by various osteological characters (see Additional file 1: 2.2).

Our molecular time scale estimates the split of Odontobatrachus in the Cretaceous (90.1 Ma; confidence interval: 84.2-97.1 Ma; see Additional file 1: 1.2). The dates in our timescale are also temporally comparable with other major splits within the epifamily Ranoidae that are recognized at the family level rank in anuran classification [24, 25]. Although, there is a lack of resolution in the basal nodes among African and Asian ranids our dating results supports the high distinctiveness of the West African torrent-frogs.

In summary, despite weakly resolved basal relationships of Odontobatrachus, our results clearly support the distinctiveness of West African torrent-frogs in relation to all other families of the higher taxon Natatanura or Ranoidae (Figure 1). The problem of insufficient taxon sampling as a cause of long branches is known [33], however, our taxon sampling was relatively complete. The relative and absolute branch lengths of Odontobatrachus compared to its tentatively assigned nearest sister group correspond to those differences exhibited between other Ranoidae families in our analyses, and supports the distinct status of West African torrent-frogs Odontobatrachus.

Taxonomic changes, as proposed in our study, need to be carefully assessed in order to sustain stability of classifications. Vences et al. [34] proposed criteria for the recognition of (higher level) taxa (but see [35]). Most important criteria sensu[34] are: (i) monophyly, (ii) clade stability and (iii) phenotypic diagnosability. We demonstrate that all these aspects are applicable in the case of the West African torrent-frogs Odontobatrachus. As (i) the case concerns a single genus (with currently one described species and potentially additional taxa), (ii) recognized to be distinct by a phylogenetic approach using optimization methods with a dense taxon and genetic sampling, and (iii) morphological differentiation from all other families [see below]. A detailed differentiation between the morphologically most similar petropedetid genera is given in the Additional file 1: 2.2. Consequently, we place the West African torrent-frogs Odontobatrachus in an own, new family, described below.

The morphologically most similar family Petropedetidae can be differentiated from Odontobatrachidae fam. nov. by the following morphological characters: presence of tusk-like odontoids on mandible (absent in Petropedetidae), presence of lateral vocal sacs in males (absent or median in Petropedetidae). A detailed differential diagnosis to Central and East African torrent frogs (Petropedetes and Arthroleptides) including an osteological differentiation is provided in Additional file 1: 2.

West African torrent-frogs have been recently recognized as a distinct genus [14]. This study demonstrates the distinctiveness of this lineage among all currently known families in the Ranoidea clade. Preliminary dating points to an origin of the lineage in the Cretaceous, a period of high diversification of family lineages in Ranoidea [25]. Molecular results distinguish the lineage comprising West African torrent-frogs from all known Ranoidea families. A comparison of osteological characters of this lineage with torrent-frogs from Central and East Africa, family Petropedetidae, further supports its distinctiveness. Consequently, a new family, Odontobatrachidae fam. nov., is described for West African torrent-frogs. The genus Odontobatrachus is monotypic but undescribed species have been identified and their description is pending [14]. Present findings of an endemic frog family in West Africa reflect the importance of this biodiversity hotspot, as South Africa is the only other African region with an endemic anuran family.

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